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Panel study data

The BES has included panel studies in a relatively small number of most recent periods. These panel studies follow the same survey respondents over time in panel study ‘waves’ of data. Each wave can also be used as a cross-section and surveys include filter variables to find out which respondents are interviewed in all waves, in just one wave or some waves. Panel studies are particularly useful to study within-person change and the evolution of political preferences and electoral behaviours.