Skip to main content

Publications using BES data

British Election Study data has been used extensively in political science research and analysis. Below is a summary of the papers, publications and journals which reference BES data publications. We will update this list periodically – please contact us to let us know any references we have overlooked when compiling this list.


Allen, Nicholas, Judith Bara, and John Bartle. 2017. “Finding a Niche? Challenger Parties and Issue Emphasis in the 2015 Televised Leaders’ Debates.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19 (4): 807–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117715014.

Antonucci, Lorenza, Laszlo Horvath, Yordan Kutiyski, and André Krouwel. 2017. “The Malaise of the Squeezed Middle: Challenging the Narrative of the ‘Left behind’ Brexiter.” Competition & Change, 102452941770413. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529417704135.

Arnorsson, Agust, and Gylfi Zoega. 2018. “On the Causes of Brexit.” European Journal of Political Economy 55 (November 2016): 301–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2018.02.001.

Bale, Tim. 2018. “Who Leads and Who Follows? The Symbiotic Relationship between UKIP and the Conservatives – and Populism and Euroscepticism.” Politics 38 (3): 263–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263395718754718.

Bale, Tim, and Paul Webb. 2015. “The Conservatives: Their Sweetest Victory?” Parliamentary Affairs 68: 41–53. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv026.

Bankert, Alexa, Leonie Huddy, and Martin Rosema. 2017. “Measuring Partisanship as a Social Identity in Multi-Party Systems.” Political Behavior 39 (1): 103–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-016-9349-5.

Barkovic-Parsons, Caladan, Robert Hodgson, and John Maloney. 2017. “Are Marginals Different? Evidence from British Elections 1950–2015.” Public Choice 171 (3–4): 303–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-017-0438-8.

Barnes, Lucy, and Timothy Hicks. 2018. “Making Austerity Popular: The Media and Mass Attitudes toward Fiscal Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 62 (2): 340–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12346.

Becker, Sascha, Theimo Fetzer, and Dennis Novy. 2017. “Who Voted for Brexit? A Comprehensive District-Level Analysis.” Economic Policy, no. October 2017: 601–50.

Bhatti, Yosef, Edward Fieldhouse, and Kasper M. Hansen. 2018. It’s a Group Thing: How Voters Go to the Polls Together. Political Behavior. Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-018-9484-2.

Blanchflower, David G., and Andrew Oswald. 2017. “Do Humans Suffer a Psychological Low in Midlife? Two Approaches (With and Without Controls) in Seven Data Sets.” NBER Working Paper Series, 24. https://doi.org/10.3386/w23724.

Bol, Damien, André Blais, and Jean François Laslier. 2018. “A Mixed-Utility Theory of Vote Choice Regret.” Public Choice 176 (3–4): 461–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-018-0571-z.

Campbell, Rosie, and Sarah Childs. 2015. “All Aboard the Pink Battle Bus? Women Voters, Women’s Issues, Candidates and Party Leaders.” Parliamentary Affairs 68: 206–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv036.

Carl, Noah. 2018. “IQ and Political Attitudes across British Regions and Local Authorities.” Intelligence 69 (March): 169–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2018.06.002.

Carl, Noah. 2017. “Ethnicity and Electoral Fraud in Britain.” Electoral Studies 50: 128–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.09.011.

Carnes, Nicholas, and Noam Lupu. 2016. “Do Voters Dislike Working-Class Candidates? Voter Biases and the Descriptive Underrepresentation of the Working Class.” American Political Science Review 110 (04): 832–44. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055416000551.

Carvalho, Henrique, and Anastasia Chamberlen. 2018. “Why Punishment Pleases: Punitive Feelings in a World of Hostile Solidarity.” Punishment and Society 20 (2): 217–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474517699814.

Chamberlen, Anastasia, and Henrique Carvalho. 2018. “The Thrill of the Chase: Punishment, Hostility and the Prison Crisis.” Social and Legal Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/0964663918759820.

Clements, Ben. 2017. “Weekly Churchgoing amongst Roman Catholics in Britain: Long-Term Trends and Contemporary Analysis.” Journal of Beliefs & Values 38 (1): 32–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/13617672.2016.1237422.

COLANTONE, ITALO, and PIERO STANIG. 2018. “Global Competition and Brexit.” American Political Science Review, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055417000685.

Collignon, Sofia, and Javier Sajuria. 2018. “Local Means Local, Does It? Regional Identification and Preferences for Local Candidates.” Electoral Studies 56 (January): 170–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.07.003.

Cutts, David, Matthew Goodwin, and Caitlin Milazzo. 2017. “Defeat of the People’s Army? The 2015 British General Election and the UK Independence Party (UKIP).” Electoral Studies 48: 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.03.002.

Cutts, David, and Andrew Russell. 2018. “The Liberal Democrats: Green Shoots of Recovery or Still on Life Support?” Parliamentary Affairs 71 (2017): 72–90. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx063.

Burca, Grainne De. 2018. “Is EU Supranational Governance a Challenge to Liberal Constitutionalism?” Ssrn, no. Routledge 1992: 337–68. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3105238.

Dennison, James. 2016. The Greens in British Politics: Protest, Anti-Austerity and the Divided Left. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42673-0.

Evans, Geoffrey, and Jonathan Mellon. 2018. “Immigration, Euroscepticism and the Rise and Fall of UKIP.” Party Politics 25: 76–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818816969.

Evans, Geoffrey, and Jonathan Mellon. 2016. “Working Class Votes and Conservative Losses: Solving the UKIP Puzzle.” Parliamentary Affairs 69 (2): 464–79. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv005.

Evans, Jocelyn, Kai Arzheimer, Rosie Campbell, and Philip Cowley. 2017. “Candidate Localness and Voter Choice in the 2015 General Election in England.” Political Geography 59 (July): 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.POLGEO.2017.02.009.

Fatke, Matthias. 2019. “The Personality of Populists: How the Big Five Traits Relate to Populist Attitudes.” Personality and Individual Differences 139 (October 2018): 138–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.018.

Fenner, Trevor, Eric Kaufmann, Mark Levene, and George Loizou. 2017. “A Multiplicative Process for Generating a Beta-like Survival Function with Application to the UK 2016 EU Referendum Results.” International Journal of Modern Physics C 28 (11): 1750132. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0129183117501327.

Fernandez-Vazquez, Pablo. 2018. “The Credibility of Party Policy Rhetoric Survey Experimental Evidence.” The Journal of Politics 81. https://doi.org/10.1086/699915.

Fieldhouse, Edward. 2018. “Being a Voter: Developing a Survey Instrument for Expressive Voting.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, October, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2018.1530679.

Fieldhouse, Edward, Justin Fisher, and David Cutts. 2019. “Popularity Equilibrium: Testing a General Theory of Local Campaign Effectiveness.” Party Politics, January, 135406881882344. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818823443.

Fieldhouse, Edward, and Christopher Prosser. 2018. “The Limits of Partisan Loyalty: How the Scottish Independence Referendum Cost Labour.” Electoral Studies 52 (December 2017): 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.01.002.

Fielding, David. 2018. “The Co-Evolution of Education and Tolerance: Evidence from England.” Social Forces 96 (4): 1825–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soy008.

Ford, Robert, and Matthew Goodwin. 2017. “Britain After Brexit: A Nation Divided.” Journal of Democracy 28 (1): 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2017.0002.

Galandini, Silvia, and Edward Fieldhouse. 2019. “Discussants That Mobilise : Ethnicity , Political Discussion Networks and Voter Turnout in Britain.” Electoral Studies 57 (December 2018): 163–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.12.003.

Gingrich, Jane. 2017. “A New Progressive Coalition? The European Left in a Time of Change.” The Political Quarterly 88 (1): 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12332.

Goodwin, Matthew, and Caitlin Milazzo. 2017. “Taking Back Control? Investigating the Role of Immigration in the 2016 Vote for Brexit.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19 (3): 450–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117710799.

Green, Jane, and Christopher Prosser. 2016. “Party System Fragmentation and Single-Party Government: The British General Election of 2015.” West European Politics 39 (6): 1299–1310. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2016.1173335.

Hale, Isaac D. n.d. “Abandon Ship? An Analysis of Strategic Voting among Liberal Democrat Voters in the 2015 UK Election.” Parliamentary Affairs. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1093/PA/GSZ007.

Harmer, Emily, and Rosalynd Southern. 2018. “More Stable than Strong: Women’s Representation, Voters and Issues.” Parliamentary Affairs 71 (suppl_1): 237–54. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx072.

Harrison, Sarah. 2018. “Young Voters.” Parliamentary Affairs 71 (June 2017): 255–66. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx068.

Hartman, Todd K., Charles Pattie, and Ron Johnston. 2017. “Learning on the Job? Adapting Party Campaign Strategy to Changing Information on the Local Political Context.” Electoral Studies 49: 128–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.06.005.

Hayton, R. 2016. “The UK Independence Party and the Politics of Englishness.” Political Studies Review 14 (3): 400–410. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478929916649612.

Hobolt, Sara B. 2016. “The Brexit Vote: A Divided Nation, a Divided Continent.” Journal of European Public Policy 23 (9): 1259–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2016.1225785.

Ishkanian, Armine. 2018. “Social Movements, Brexit and Social Policy.” Social Policy and Society, 147–59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1474746418000404.

Jennings, Will, Nick Clarke, Jonathan Moss, and Gerry Stoker. 2017. “The Decline in Diffuse Support for National Politics: The Long View on Political Discontent in Britain.” Public Opinion Quarterly 81 (3): 748–58. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfx020.

Jennings, Will, and Gerry Stoker. 2016. “The Bifurcation of Politics: Two Englands.” Political Quarterly 87 (3): 372–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12228.

Jensen, Michael J. 2017. “Social Media and Political Campaigning: Changing Terms of Engagement?” International Journal of Press/Politics 22 (1): 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216673196.

Johnson, Craig, and Alia Middleton. 2016. “Junior Coalition Parties in the British Context: Explaining the Liberal Democrat Collapse at the 2015 General Election.” Electoral Studies 43: 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2016.05.007.

Johnston, Ron, Todd Hartman, and Charles Pattie. 2018. “Predicting General Election Outcomes: Campaigns and Changing Voter Knowledge at the 2017 General Election in England.” Quality and Quantity, no. 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-018-0819-1.

Johnston, Ron, Todd Hartman, and Charles Pattie. 2018. “Feelings about Party Leaders as a Voter’s Heuristic – What Happens When the Leaders Change? A Note.” Electoral Studies, no. July: 1–7. https://doi.org/S0261379418303524.

Johnston, Ron, Kelvyn Jones, and David Manley. 2018. “Age, Sex, Qualifications and Voting at Recent English General Elections: An Alternative Exploratory Approach.” Electoral Studies 51 (November 2017): 24–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.11.006.

Johnston, Ron, Charles Pattie, and Todd K. Hartman. 2019. “Local Knowledge, Local Learning and Predicting Election Outcomes: Voter Assessments of Likely Party Success in Scotland’s Constituencies at the 2015 and 2017 General Elections.” Scottish Affairs 28 (1): 1–31. https://doi.org/10.3366/scot.2019.0263.

Johnston, Ron, Charles Pattie, Todd Hartman, David Manley, David Rossiter, and Kelvyn Jones. 2018. “Scotland’s Electoral Geography Differed from the Rest of Britain’s in 2017 (and 2015)–Exploring Its Contours.” Scottish Geographical Journal 134 (1–2): 24–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/14702541.2017.1409362.

Johnston, Ron, Charles Pattie, and David Rossiter. 2017. “A Re-Dividing Nation? A Newly Polarised Electoral Geography of Great Britain.” British Politics 12 (4): 521–35. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41293-017-0052-x.

Jones, Kelvyn, Ron Johnston, and David Manley. 2016. “Uncovering Interactions in Multivariate Contingency Tables: A Multi-Level Modelling Exploratory Approach.” Methodological Innovations. https://doi.org/10.1177/2059799116672874.

Kaufmann, Eric. 2017. “Levels or Changes?: Ethnic Context, Immigration and the UK Independence Party Vote.” Electoral Studies 48 (September 2015): 57–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.05.002.

Kaufmann, Eric, and Gareth Harris. 2015. “‘White Flight’ or Positive Contact? Local Diversity and Attitudes to Immigration in Britain.” Comparative Political Studies 48 (12): 1563–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414015581684.

Kolpinskaya, Ekaterina, and Stuart Fox. 2019. “Praying on Brexit? Unpicking the Effect of Religion on Support for European Union Integration and Membership.” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, January. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12836.

Kuhn, Patrick M., and Nick Vivyan. 2018. “Reducing Turnout Misreporting in Online Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly 82 (2): 300–321. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfy017.

Magni, Gabriele, and Andrew Reynolds. 2018. “Candidate Sexual Orientation Didn’t Matter (in the Way You Might Think) in the 2015 UK General Election.” American Political Science Review 112 (3): 713–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055418000102.

Mancosu, Moreno, Giuliano Bobba, Moreno Mancosu Id, and Giuliano Bobba. 2019. “Using Deep-Learning Algorithms to Derive Basic Characteristics of Social Media Users: The Brexit Campaign as a Case Study.” Edited by Floriana Gargiulo. PLoS ONE 14 (1): e0211013. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211013.

Manley, David, Kelvyn Jones, and Ron Johnston. 2017. “The Geography of Brexit – What Geography? Modelling and Predicting the Outcome across 380 Local Authorities.” Local Economy 32 (3): 183–203. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269094217705248.

Martin, Nicole S. 2019. “Ethnic Minority Voters in the UK 2015 General Election: A Breakthrough for the Conservative Party?” Electoral Studies 57 (February 2017): 174–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.12.004.

Matsuo, Akitaka, and Seonghui Lee. 2018. “Multi-Dimensional Policy Preferences in the 2015 British General Election: A Conjoint Analysis.” Electoral Studies 55 (July): 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.07.005.

McAngus, Craig. 2018. “A Survey of Scottish Fishermen Ahead of Brexit: Political, Social and Constitutional Attitudes.” Maritime Studies 17 (1): 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40152-018-0090-z.

McEwen, Nicola. 2018. “Brexit and Scotland: Between Two Unions.” British Politics 13 (1): 65–78. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41293-017-0066-4.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Geoffrey Evans. 2016. “Class, Electoral Geography and the Future of UKIP: Labour’s Secret Weapon?” Parliamentary Affairs 69 (2): 492–98. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv013.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Edward Fieldhouse. 2016. “The British Election Study 2015 General Election Constituency Forecast.” Electoral Studies 41: 250–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2015.11.009.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Christopher Prosser. 2017. “Twitter and Facebook Are Not Representative of the General Population: Political Attitudes and Demographics of British Social Media Users.” Research & Politics 4 (3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168017720008.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Christopher Prosser. 2017. “Missing Non-Voters and Misweighted Samples: Explaining the 2015 Great British Polling Miss.” Public Opinion Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2631165.

Morisi, Davide. 2018. “When Campaigns Can Backfire: National Identities and Support for Parties in the 2015 U.K. General Election in Scotland.” Political Research Quarterly 71 (4): 895–909. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912918771529.

Morisi, Davide. 2018. “Choosing the Risky Option.” Public Opinion Quarterly 82 (3): 447–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfy033.

Mortimore, Roger. 2019. “Seismographs for Youthquakes—How Do We Know How the Public Voted in British General Elections?” In Political Communication in Britain, 247–63. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00822-2_17.

Pastor, Lubos, and Pietro Veronesi. 2018. “Inequality Aversion, Populism, and the Backlash Against Globalization.” SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3224232.

Pattie, Charles, and Ron Johnston. 2017. “Sticking to the Union? Nationalism, Inequality and Political Disaffection and the Geography of Scotland’s 2014 Independence Referendum.” Regional & Federal Studies 27 (1): 83–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/13597566.2016.1251907.

Pattie, Charles, and Ron Johnston. 2016. “Talking with One Voice? Conversation Networks and Political Polarisation.” The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 18 (2): 482–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148115620989.

Polk, Jonathan, and Ann Kristin Kölln. 2017. “Electoral Infidelity: Why Party Members Cast Defecting Votes.” European Journal of Political Research, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12238.

Prosser, Christopher. 2018. “The Strange Death of Multi-Party Britain: The UK General Election of 2017.” West European Politics 2382: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2018.1424838.

Prosser, Christopher, Edward A. Fieldhouse, Jane Green, Jonathan Mellon, and Geoffrey Evans. 2018. “Tremors But No Youthquake: Measuring Changes in the Age and Turnout Gradients at the 2015 and 2017 British General Elections.” https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3111839.

Prosser, Christopher, and Jonathan Mellon. 2018. “The Twilight of the Polls? A Review of Trends in Polling Accuracy and the Causes of Polling Misses.” Government and Opposition 53 (4): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2018.7.

Salter, Brian. 2018. “When Intellectuals Fail? Brexit and Hegemonic Challenge.” Competition and Change 22 (5): 467–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529418791190.

Sayer, Derek. 2018. “Between Karel Čapek and a Hard Brexit . Reflections on Robotics and Humanity.” New Perspectives 26 (2): 115–28.

Shorrocks, Rosalind. 2016. “Modernisation and Government Socialisation: Considering Explanations for Gender Differences in Cohort Trends in British Voting Behaviour.” Electoral Studies 42: 237–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2016.03.004.

Stanley, Liam, and Todd K. Hartman. 2018. “Tax Preferences, Fiscal Transparency, and the Meaning of Welfare: An Experimental Study.” Political Studies 66 (4): 830–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321717731661.

Steenbergen, Marco R., and Tomasz Siczek. 2017. “Better the Devil You Know? Risk-Taking, Globalization and Populism in Great Britain.” European Union Politics 18 (1): 119–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465116516681858.

Sudulich, Laura, Siim Trumm, and Jack Bridgewater. 2019. “Parliamentary Representation: A Cross-National Study of Candidates’ Views.” Parliamentary Affairs, March. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsz009.

Surridge, Paula. 2018. “Brexit, British Politics, and the Left-Right Divide.” Political Insight 9 (4): 4–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041905818815189.

Thomson, Robert, and Heinz Brandenburg. 2018. “Trust and Citizens’ Evaluations of Promise Keeping by Governing Parties.” Political Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321718764177.

Tonge, Jonathan, Cristina Leston-Bandeira, and Stuart Wilks-Heeg. 2018. “Conclusion: An Election That Satisfied Few and Solved Little.” Parliamentary Affairs 71 (2017): 267–76. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx069.

Webb, Paul, Tim Bale, and Monica Poletti. 2017. “‘All Mouth and No Trousers?’ How Many Conservative Party Members Voted for UKIP in 2015 – and Why Did They Do So?” Politics 37 (4): 432–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263395717697344.

Webb, Paul, Monica Poletti, and Tim Bale. 2017. “So Who Really Does the Donkey Work in ‘Multi-Speed Membership Parties’? Comparing the Election Campaign Activity of Party Members and Party Supporters.” Electoral Studies 46: 64–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.02.002.

Whiteley, Paul, Monica Poletty, Paul Webb, and Tim Bale. 2019. “Oh, Jeremy Corbyn! Why Did Labour Party Membership Soar after the 2015 General Election?” The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 21 (September): 80–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148118815408.

Widfeldt, Anders, and Heinz Brandenburg. 2018. “What Kind of Party Is the UK Independence Party? The Future of the Extreme Right in Britain or Just Another Tory Party?” Political Studies 66 (3): 577–600. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321717723509.