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Publications using BES data

British Election Study data has been used extensively in political science research and analysis. Below are some recent publications and journals which make use of BES data. We will update this list periodically – please contact us to let us know any references we have overlooked when compiling this list.


Abreu, Maria, and Özge Öner. 2020. “Disentangling the Brexit Vote: The Role of Economic, Social and Cultural Contexts in Explaining the UK’s EU Referendum Vote.” Environment and Planning A 52(7): 1434–56.

Ackland, James, Andres Gvirtz, Jason Rentfrow, and Lee De-Wit. 2021. “Psychological Electoral Neighbourhood Effects.” PsyArXiv Preprints: 1–32. https://psyarxiv.com/j6exs.

Adler, David, and Ben Ansell. 2020. “Housing and Populism.” West European Politics 43(2): 344–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2019.1615322.

Alexandre-Collier, Agnès. 2020. “From Rebellion to Extinction: Where Have All the Tory Remainer MPs Gone?” Political Quarterly 91(1): 24–30.

Allen, Nicholas, and Judith Bara. 2016. “‘Public Foreplay’ or Programmes for Government? The Content of the 2015 Party Manifestos.” Parliamentary Affairs (May 2016): gsw020. http://pa.oxfordjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1093/pa/gsw020.

Allen, Nicholas, Judith Bara, and John Bartle. 2017. “Finding a Niche? Challenger Parties and Issue Emphasis in the 2015 Televised Leaders’ Debates.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19(4): 807–23.

Allen, William, and Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij. 2022. “As We Like It: Did the UK’s 2016 EU Referendum Reveal the ‘Will of the People?’” PS: Political Science and Politics forthcomin. https://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/46877/.

Ansell, Ben, and David Adler. 2019. “Brexit and the Politics of Housing in Britain.” Political Quarterly 90(S2): 105–16.

Antonucci, Lorenza, Laszlo Horvath, Yordan Kutiyski, and André Krouwel. 2017. “The Malaise of the Squeezed Middle: Challenging the Narrative of the ‘Left behind’ Brexiter.” Competition & Change: 102452941770413. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1024529417704135.

Arnorsson, Agust, and Gylfi Zoega. 2018. “On the Causes of Brexit.” European Journal of Political Economy 55(November 2016): 301–23.

Bale, Tim. 2018. “Who Leads and Who Follows? The Symbiotic Relationship between UKIP and the Conservatives – and Populism and Euroscepticism.” Politics 38(3): 263–77.

Bale, Tim, and Paul Webb. 2015. “The Conservatives: Their Sweetest Victory?” Parliamentary Affairs 68: 41–53.

Baltz, Samuel. 2022. “How Strategic Are Most Voters? Evidence from Simulations.” Working Paper: 1–32. https://samuelbaltz.net/files/nearTieVoting_20220407.pdf.

Bankert, Alexa, Leonie Huddy, and Martin Rosema. 2017. “Measuring Partisanship as a Social Identity in Multi-Party Systems.” Political Behavior 39(1): 103–32. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11109-016-9349-5.

Barclay, Andrew. 2020. “When Religious Voting Becomes Volatile: The Case of Jewish Voters in Britain.” Politics and Religion 13(3): 544–74.

Barclay, Andrew, Maria Sobolewska, and Robert Ford. 2019. “Political Realignment of British Jews: Testing Competing Explanations.” Electoral Studies 61. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261379419300721?dgcid=coauthor.

Barkovic-Parsons, Caladan, Robert Hodgson, and John Maloney. 2017. “Are Marginals Different? Evidence from British Elections 1950–2015.” Public Choice 171(3–4): 303–21.

Barnes, Lucy, and Timothy Hicks. 2018. “Making Austerity Popular: The Media and Mass Attitudes toward Fiscal Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 62(2): 340–54.

Bartle, J, and N J Allen. 2021. Breaking the Deadlock: Britain at the Polls, 2019. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Becker, Sascha, Theimo Fetzer, and Dennis Novy. 2017. “Who Voted for Brexit? A Comprehensive District-Level Analysis.” Economic Policy (October 2017): 601–50.

Bell, Torsten, and Laura Gardiner. 2019. “My Generation, Baby: The Politics of Age in Brexit Britain.” The Political Quarterly 90(S2): 128–41. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-923X.12623.

Berz, Jan. 2020. “The Effect of Voters’ Economic Perception, Brexit and Campaigns on the Evaluation of Party Leaders over Time.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 22(2): 202–19.

Bhatti, Yosef, Edward Fieldhouse, and Kasper M. Hansen. 2018. Political Behavior It’s a Group Thing: How Voters Go to the Polls Together. Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-018-9484-2.

Blanchflower, David G., and Andrew Oswald. 2017. “Do Humans Suffer a Psychological Low in Midlife? Two Approaches (With and Without Controls) in Seven Data Sets.” NBER Working Paper Series: 24. http://www.nber.org/papers/w23724.

Blumenau, Jack et al. 2021. “Testing Negative: The Non-Consequences of Covid-19 on Mass Political Attitudes.” APSA preprint. https://preprints.apsanet.org/engage/apsa/article-details/61530c5fd1fc334936f71953.

Bol, Damien, André Blais, and Jean François Laslier. 2018. “A Mixed-Utility Theory of Vote Choice Regret.” Public Choice 176(3–4): 461–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-018-0571-z.

Campbell, Rosie, and Sarah Childs. 2015. “All Aboard the Pink Battle Bus? Women Voters, Women’s Issues, Candidates and Party Leaders.” Parliamentary Affairs 68: 206–23.

Campbell, Rosie, and Rosalind Shorrocks. 2021. “Finally Rising with the Tide? Gender and the Vote in the 2019 British Elections.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2021.1968412.

Campbell, Rosie, and Rosalind Shorrocks. 2021. “Women Voters Taking the Wheel?” Political Quarterly 92(4): 652–61.

Carl, Noah. 2017. “Ethnicity and Electoral Fraud in Britain.” Electoral Studies 50: 128–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.09.011.

Carl, Noah. 2018. “IQ and Political Attitudes across British Regions and Local Authorities.” Intelligence 69(March): 169–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2018.06.002.

Carnes, Nicholas, and Noam Lupu. 2016. “Do Voters Dislike Working-Class Candidates? Voter Biases and the Descriptive Underrepresentation of the Working Class.” American Political Science Review 110(04): 832–44. http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0003055416000551.

Carreras, Miguel. 2019. “‘What Do We Have to Lose?’: Local Economic Decline, Prospect Theory, and Support for Brexit.” Electoral Studies 62(June): 102094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2019.102094.

Carreras, Miguel, Yasemin Irepoglu Carreras, and Shaun Bowler. 2019. “Long-Term Economic Distress, Cultural Backlash, and Support for Brexit.” Comparative Political Studies 52(9): 1396–1424.

Carvalho, Henrique, and Anastasia Chamberlen. 2018. “Why Punishment Pleases: Punitive Feelings in a World of Hostile Solidarity.” Punishment and Society 20(2): 217–34.

Chamberlen, Anastasia, and Henrique Carvalho. 2018. “The Thrill of the Chase: Punishment, Hostility and the Prison Crisis.” Social and Legal Studies.

Chrisp, Joe, and Nick Pearce. 2019. “Grey Power: Towards a Political Economy of Older Voters in the UK.” Political Quarterly 90(4): 743–56.

Clements, Ben. 2017. “Weekly Churchgoing amongst Roman Catholics in Britain: Long-Term Trends and Contemporary Analysis.” Journal of Beliefs & Values 38(1): 32–44. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13617672.2016.1237422.

Colantone, Italo, and Piero Stanig. 2018. “Global Competition and Brexit.” American Political Science Review 112(2): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055417000685.

Collignon, Sofia, and Javier Sajuria. 2018. “Local Means Local, Does It? Regional Identification and Preferences for Local Candidates.” Electoral Studies 56(January): 170–78.

Cooper, Luke, and Christabel Cooper. 2020. “‘Get Brexit Done’ : The New Political Divides of England and Wales at the 2019 Election.” Political Quarterly 91(4): 751–61.

Crulli, Mirko. 2022. “Vote Metropolitanization after the Transnational Cleavage and the Suburbanization of Radical Right Populism: The Cases of London and Rome.” Quaderni dell Osservatorio elettorale QOE – IJES : 1–32.

Cutts, David, Matthew Goodwin, and Caitlin Milazzo. 2017. “Defeat of the People’s Army? The 2015 British General Election and the UK Independence Party (UKIP).” Electoral Studies 48: 70–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.03.002.

Cutts, David, and Andrew Russell. 2018. “The Liberal Democrats: Green Shoots of Recovery or Still on Life Support?” Parliamentary Affairs 71(2017): 72–90.

Daoust, Jean-François, and André Blais. 2022. “Do Citizens Keep Voting or Abstaining by Habit? No.” SSRN Electronic Journal (April 21, 2022). https://ssrn.com/abstract=4090013.

De Búrca, Gráinne. 2018. “Is EU Supranational Governance a Challenge to Liberal Constitutionalism?” University of Chicago Law Review 85(2): 337–67. https://lawreview.uchicago.edu/publication/eu-supranational-governance-challenge-liberal-constitutionalism.

De Geus, Roosmarijn, Elizabeth Ralph-Morrow, and Rosalind Shorrocks. 2022. “Understanding Ambivalent Sexism and Its Relationship with Electoral Choice in Britain.” British Journal of Political Science: 1–20.

Denham, John. 2020. “Mind the Values Gap.” Political Quarterly 91(3): 664–69.

Dennison, James. 2016. The Greens in British Politics: Protest, Anti-Austerity and the Divided Left. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42673-0.

Dennison, James. 2020. “How Niche Parties React to Losing Their Niche: The Cases of the Brexit Party, the Green Party and Change UK.” Britain Votes (2019): 125–41. https://academic.oup.com/pa/article/73/Supplement_1/125/5910274.

Eder, Christina, and Alexander Jedinger. 2019. “FAIR National Election Studies: How Well Are We Doing?” European Political Science 18(4): 651–68. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41304-018-0194-3.

Eggers, Andrew C., and Nick Vivyan. 2020. “Who Votes More Strategically?” American Political Science Review 114(2): 470–85.

Eichengreen, Barry, Rebecca Maria Mari, and Gregory Thwaites. 2021. “Will Brexit Age Well? Cohorts, Seasoning and the Age–Leave Gradient: On the Evolution of UK Support for the European Union.” Economica 88: 1130–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecca.12388.

English, Patrick. 2019. “Visibly Restricted: Public Opinion and the Representation of Immigrant Origin Communities across Great Britain.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 42(9): 1437–55.

Evans, Geoffrey, and Jonathan Mellon. 2016. “Working Class Votes and Conservative Losses: Solving the UKIP Puzzle.” Parliamentary Affairs 69(2): 464–79.

Evans, Geoffrey, and Jonathan Mellon. 2018. “Immigration, Euroscepticism and the Rise and Fall of UKIP.” Party Politics 25: 76–97.

Evans, Jocelyn, Kai Arzheimer, Rosie Campbell, and Philip Cowley. 2017. “Candidate Localness and Voter Choice in the 2015 General Election in England.” Political Geography 59: 61–71. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0962629817300665.

Fatke, Matthias. 2019. “The Personality of Populists: How the Big Five Traits Relate to Populist Attitudes.” Personality and Individual Differences 139(October 2018): 138–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.018.

Fenner, Trevor, Eric Kaufmann, Mark Levene, and George Loizou. 2017. “A Multiplicative Process for Generating a Beta-like Survival Function with Application to the UK 2016 EU Referendum Results.” International Journal of Modern Physics C 28(11): 1750132. http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129183117501327.

Fernandez-Vazquez, Pablo. 2019. “The Credibility of Party Policy Rhetoric Survey Experimental Evidence.” The Journal of Politics 81(1). https://doi.org/10.1086/699915.

Fieldhouse, Edward. 2019. “Being a Voter: Developing a Survey Instrument for Expressive Voting.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 29(3): 318–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2018.1530679.

Fieldhouse, Edward, and David Cutts. 2020. “Do as I Say or Do as I Do ? How Social Relationships Shape the Impact of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms of Voting.” British Journal of Political Science: 1–13.

Fieldhouse, Edward, Justin Fisher, and David Cutts. 2019. “Popularity Equilibrium: Testing a General Theory of Local Campaign Effectiveness.” Party Politics 26(5): 529–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818823443.

Fieldhouse, Edward et al. 2019. Electoral Shocks: The Volatile Voter in a Turbulent World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fieldhouse, Edward, and Christopher Prosser. 2018. “The Limits of Partisan Loyalty: How the Scottish Independence Referendum Cost Labour.” Electoral Studies 52(December 2017): 11–25. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0261379417302755.

Fielding, David. 2018. “The Co-Evolution of Education and Tolerance: Evidence from England.” Social Forces 96(4): 1825–50.

Ford, Robert, and Matthew Goodwin. 2017. “Britain After Brexit: A Nation Divided.” Journal of Democracy 28(1): 17–30. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/645534.

Galandini, Silvia, and Edward Fieldhouse. 2019. “Discussants That Mobilise: Ethnicity, Political Discussion Networks and Voter Turnout in Britain.” Electoral Studies 57(December 2018): 163–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.12.003.

Gingrich, Jane. 2017. “A New Progressive Coalition? The European Left in a Time of Change.” The Political Quarterly 88(1): 39–51. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1467-923X.12332.

Goodwin, Matthew, and Caitlin Milazzo. 2017. “Taking Back Control? Investigating the Role of Immigration in the 2016 Vote for Brexit.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19(3): 450–64.

Green, Jane, and Christopher Prosser. 2016. “Party System Fragmentation and Single-Party Government: The British General Election of 2015.” West European Politics 39(6): 1299–1310. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01402382.2016.1173335.

Greene, Zachary, and Fraser McMillan. 2020. “‘Party Competition and Dual Accountability in Multi-Level Systems’ the Independence Echo: The Rise of the Constitutional Question in Scottish Election Manifestos and Voter Behaviour.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 30(3): 317–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/[email protected].

Grynberg, Charlotte, Stefanie Walter, and Fabio Wasserfallen. 2020. “Expectations, Vote Choice and Opinion Stability since the 2016 Brexit Referendum.” European Union Politics 21(2): 255–75.

Hale, Isaac D. 2020. “Abandon Ship? An Analysis of Strategic Voting among Liberal Democrat Voters in the 2015 UK Election.” Parliamentary Affairs. https://academic.oup.com/pa/advance-article/doi/10.1093/pa/gsz007/5365507.

Hanretty, Chris, Benjamin E. Lauderdale, and Nick Vivyan. 2020. “A Choice-Based Measure of Issue Importance in the Electorate.” American Journal of Political Science 64(3): 519–35.

Harmer, Emily, and Rosalynd Southern. 2018. “More Stable than Strong: Women’s Representation, Voters and Issues.” Parliamentary Affairs 71(suppl_1): 237–54. https://academic.oup.com/pa/article/71/suppl_1/237/4930867.

Harrison, Sarah. 2018. “Young Voters.” Parliamentary Affairs 71(June 2017): 255–66.

Hartman, Todd K., Charles Pattie, and Ron Johnston. 2017. “Learning on the Job? Adapting Party Campaign Strategy to Changing Information on the Local Political Context.” Electoral Studies 49: 128–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.06.005.

Hayton, R. 2016. “The UK Independence Party and the Politics of Englishness.” Political Studies Review 14(3): 400–410. http://psw.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1177/1478929916649612.

Henderson, Ailsa et al. 2021. “Analysing Vote-Choice in a Multinational State: National Identity and Territorial Differentiation in the 2016 Brexit Vote.” Regional Studies 55(9): 1502–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2020.1813883.

Hobolt, Sara B. 2016. “The Brexit Vote: A Divided Nation, a Divided Continent.” Journal of European Public Policy 23(9): 1259–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2016.1225785.

Hobolt, Sara B., and Toni Rodon. 2020. “Cross-Cutting Issues and Electoral Choice. EU Issue Voting in the Aftermath of the Brexit Referendum.” Journal of European Public Policy 27(2): 227–45.

Huber, Robert A. 2020. “The Role of Populist Attitudes in Explaining Climate Change Skepticism and Support for Environmental Protection.” Environmental Politics 29(6): 959–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2019.1708186.

Ishkanian, Armine. 2019. “Social Movements, Brexit and Social Policy.” Social Policy and Society 18(1): 147–59.

Jennings, Will, Nick Clarke, Jonathan Moss, and Gerry Stoker. 2017. “The Decline in Diffuse Support for National Politics: The Long View on Political Discontent in Britain.” Public Opinion Quarterly 81(3): 748–58.

Jennings, Will, and Gerry Stoker. 2016. “The Bifurcation of Politics: Two Englands.” Political Quarterly 87(3): 372–82.

Jensen, Michael J. 2017. “Social Media and Political Campaigning: Changing Terms of Engagement?” International Journal of Press/Politics 22(1): 23–42.

Johns, Robert, and Ann Kristin Kölln. 2020. “Moderation and Competence: How a Party’s Ideological Position Shapes Its Valence Reputation.” American Journal of Political Science 64(3): 649–63.

Johnson, Craig, and Alia Middleton. 2016. “Junior Coalition Parties in the British Context: Explaining the Liberal Democrat Collapse at the 2015 General Election.” Electoral Studies 43: 63–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2016.05.007.

Johnston, Ron, Todd Hartman, and Charles Pattie. 2019. “Predicting General Election Outcomes: Campaigns and Changing Voter Knowledge at the 2017 General Election in England.” Quality and Quantity 53: 1369–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-018-0819-1.

Johnston, Ron, Todd Hartman, and Charles Pattie. 2018. “Feelings about Party Leaders as a Voter’s Heuristic – What Happens When the Leaders Change? A Note.” Electoral Studies (July): 1–7. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261379418303524?dgcid=rss_sd_all.

Johnston, Ron, Kelvyn Jones, and David Manley. 2018. “Age, Sex, Qualifications and Voting at Recent English General Elections: An Alternative Exploratory Approach.” Electoral Studies 51(November 2017): 24–37.

Johnston, Ron, Charles Pattie, and Todd Hartman. 2021. “Who Follows the Leader? Leadership Heuristics and Valence Voting at the UK’s 2016 Brexit Referendum.” Innovation 34(1): 28–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/13511610.2020.1746905.

Johnston, Ron, Charles Pattie, and Todd K. Hartman. 2019. “Local Knowledge, Local Learning and Predicting Election Outcomes: Voter Assessments of Likely Party Success in Scotland’s Constituencies at the 2015 and 2017 General Elections.” Scottish Affairs 28(1): 1–31. https://www.euppublishing.com/doi/10.3366/scot.2019.0263.

Johnston, Ron et al. 2018. “Scotland’s Electoral Geography Differed from the Rest of Britain’s in 2017 (and 2015)–Exploring Its Contours.” Scottish Geographical Journal 134(1–2): 24–38.

Johnston, Ron, Charles Pattie, and David Rossiter. 2017. “A Re-Dividing Nation? A Newly Polarised Electoral Geography of Great Britain.” British Politics 12(4): 521–35.

Jones, Kelvyn, Ron Johnston, and David Manley. 2016. “Uncovering Interactions in Multivariate Contingency Tables: A Multi-Level Modelling Exploratory Approach.” Methodological Innovations 9: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2059799116672874.

Jung, Jae Hee. 2020. “The Mobilizing Effect of Parties’ Moral Rhetoric.” American Journal of Political Science 64(2): 341–55.

Jung, Jae-hee, and Zeynep Somer-topcu. 2020. “United We Stand, Divided We Fall ? The Effects of Parties’ Brexit Rhetoric on Voters’ Perceptions of Party Positions.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 0(0): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2020.1839470.

Kappe, Roland. 2020. “Multilingualism and the Brexit Referendum.” In Multilingualism and Politics, ed. K Strani. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 129–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40701-8_6.

Kaufmann, Eric. 2017. “Levels or Changes?: Ethnic Context, Immigration and the UK Independence Party Vote.” Electoral Studies 48(September 2015): 57–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.05.002.

Kaufmann, Eric, and Gareth Harris. 2015. “‘White Flight’ or Positive Contact? Local Diversity and Attitudes to Immigration in Britain.” Comparative Political Studies 48(12): 1563–90. http://cps.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0010414015581684.

Kawalerowicz, Juta. 2021. “Too Many Immigrants: How Does Local Diversity Contribute to Attitudes toward Immigration?” Acta Sociologica 64(2): 144–65. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0001699320977592.

Kenny, John. 2020. “The Role of Political Attention in Moderating the Association between Political Identities and Anthropogenic Climate Change Belief in Britain.” Political Studies 70(1): 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321720928261.

Kenny, John, Anthony Heath, and Lindsay Richards. 2021. “Fuzzy Frontiers? Testing the Fluidity of National, Partisan and Brexit Identities in the Aftermath of the 2016 Referendum.” Political Studies. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/00323217211050001.

Kolpinskaya, Ekaterina, and Stuart Fox. 2019. “Praying on Brexit? Unpicking the Effect of Religion on Support for European Union Integration and Membership.” Journal of Common Market Studies 57(3): 580–98. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jcms.12836.

Kuhn, Patrick M., and Nick Vivyan. 2018. “Reducing Turnout Misreporting in Online Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly 82(2): 300–321.

Kuhn, Theresa. 2019. “Grand Theories of European Integration Revisited: Does Identity Politics Shape the Course of European Integration?” Journal of European Public Policy 26(8): 1213–30.

Leiter, Debra. 2021. “The Inquiry’s the Thing: Teaching Quantitative Research Without Teaching Statistical Software.” In The Palgrave Handbook of Political Research Pedagogy, eds. D.J. Mallinson, J. Marin Wellwege, and E.D. Loepp. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 193–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76955-0_16.

Leruth, Benjamin, and Peter Taylor-Gooby. 2019. “Does Political Discourse Matter? Comparing Party Positions and Public Attitudes on Immigration in England.” Politics 39(2): 154–69.

Lewis, Gary J., and Lee De-Wit. 2019. “How Many Ways to Say Goodbye? The Latent Class Structure and Psychological Correlates of European Union Sentiment in a Large Sample of UK Adults.” Journal of Social and Political Psychology 7(1): 556–76.

Magistro, Beatrice. 2020. “Financial Literacy and Support for Free Trade in the UK.” World Economy 43(8): 2050–69.

Magni, Gabriele, and Andrew Reynolds. 2018. “Candidate Sexual Orientation Didn’t Matter (in the Way You Might Think) in the 2015 UK General Election.” American Political Science Review 112(3): 713–20.

Mancosu, Moreno, Giuliano Bobba, Moreno Mancosu Id, and Giuliano Bobba. 2019. “Using Deep-Learning Algorithms to Derive Basic Characteristics of Social Media Users: The Brexit Campaign as a Case Study.” PLoS ONE 14(1). http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211013.

Manley, David, Kelvyn Jones, and Ron Johnston. 2017. “The Geography of Brexit – What Geography? Modelling and Predicting the Outcome across 380 Local Authorities.” Local Economy 32(3): 183–203.

Marchal, Nahema, and David S. Watson. 2021. “The Paradox of Poor Representation: How Voter–Party Incongruence Curbs Affective Polarisation.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/13691481211048502.

Martin, Nicole S. 2019. “Ethnic Minority Voters in the UK 2015 General Election: A Breakthrough for the Conservative Party?” Electoral Studies 57(February 2017): 174–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.12.004.

Matsuo, Akitaka, and Seonghui Lee. 2018. “Multi-Dimensional Policy Preferences in the 2015 British General Election: A Conjoint Analysis.” Electoral Studies 55(July): 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.07.005.

Maynard, Julia. 2021. “Who Stays and Who Goes : Understanding the Immigration Vote in the 2015 UK General Election.” Parliamentary Affairs: 1–19. https://academic.oup.com/pa/advance-article/doi/10.1093/pa/gsab005/6155901.

McAndrew, Siobhan, Dave O’Brien, and Mark Taylor. 2020. “The Values of Culture? Social Closure in the Political Identities, Policy Preferences, and Social Attitudes of Cultural and Creative Workers.” Sociological Review 68(1): 33–54.

McAngus, Craig. 2018. “A Survey of Scottish Fishermen Ahead of Brexit: Political, Social and Constitutional Attitudes.” Maritime Studies 17(1): 41–54.

McCrone, David, and Michael Keating. 2021. “Questions of Sovereignty: Redefining Politics in Scotland?” The Political Quarterly 92(1): 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12958.

McEwen, Nicola. 2018. “Brexit and Scotland: Between Two Unions.” British Politics 13(1): 65–78. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41293-017-0066-4.

McKay, Lawrence. 2020. “Does Constituency Focus Improve Attitudes to MPs? A Test for the UK.” Journal of Legislative Studies 26(1): 1–26.

Mellon, Jonathan, Jack Bailey, and Christopher Prosser. 2021. “How Do Coronavirus Attitudes Fit into Britain’s Ideological Landscape ?” Parliamentary Affairs 74: 597–616. https://academic.oup.com/pa/article/74/3/597/6288133.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Geoffrey Evans. 2016. “Class, Electoral Geography and the Future of UKIP: Labour’s Secret Weapon?” Parliamentary Affairs 69(2): 492–98.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Edward Fieldhouse. 2016. “The British Election Study 2015 General Election Constituency Forecast.” Electoral Studies 41: 250–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2015.11.009.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Christopher Prosser. 2017. “Twitter and Facebook Are Not Representative of the General Population: Political Attitudes and Demographics of British Social Media Users.” Research & Politics 4(3). http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2053168017720008.

Mellon, Jonathan, and Christopher Prosser. 2017. “Missing Non-Voters and Misweighted Samples: Explaining the 2015 Great British Polling Miss.” Public Opinion Quarterly. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2631165.

Middleton, Alia. 2021. “Political Leadership and Contemporary British Election Campaigns.” In Communicating and Strategising Leadership in British Elections, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1–16.

Milazzo, Caitlin, Siim Trumm, and Joshua Townsley. 2021. “Crowdsourcing Campaigns: A New Dataset for Studying British Parties ’ Electoral Communications.” Political Studies Review 19(3): 520–27.

Morisi, Davide. 2018. “Choosing the Risky Option.” Public Opinion Quarterly 82(3): 447–69. https://academic.oup.com/poq/article/82/3/447/5098407.

Morisi, Davide. 2018. “When Campaigns Can Backfire: National Identities and Support for Parties in the 2015 U.K. General Election in Scotland.” Political Research Quarterly 71(4): 895–909.

Mortimore, Roger. 2021. “Opinion Polls and Populism in Modern British Elections.” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 17(1): 45–66.

Mortimore, Roger. 2019. “Seismographs for Youthquakes—How Do We Know How the Public Voted in British General Elections?” In Political Communication in Britain, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 247–63. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-00822-2_17.

Nicholls, Tom, and Richard Hayton. 2020. “Splitting the Tactical Vote? Coordination Problems with Polling Model-Driven Tactical Voting Websites.” Political Quarterly 91(1): 61–69.

Núñez, Lucas. 2021. “The Effects of Local Campaigning in Great Britain.” Electoral Studies 73(July). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2021.102384.

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