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Publications using BES data

British Election Study data has been used extensively in political science research and analysis. Below are some recent publications and journals which make use of BES data. We will update this list periodically – please contact us to let us know any references we have overlooked when compiling this list.


Abreu, M. and Öner, Ö. (2020) ‘Disentangling the Brexit vote: The role of economic, social and cultural contexts in explaining the UK’s EU referendum vote’, Environment and Planning A, 52(7), pp. 1434–1456. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X20910752 .

Adler, D. and Ansell, B. (2020) ‘Housing and populism’, West European Politics. Routledge, 43(2), pp. 344–365. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2019.1615322.

Agnew, J. (2018) ‘Too many Scotlands? Place, the SNP, and the future of nationalist mobilization’, Scottish Geographical Journal. Taylor & Francis, 134(1–2), pp. 5–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/14702541.2017.1413206.

Aldrich, J. H. et al. (2015) ‘Getting out the vote in the social media era: Are digital tools changing the extent, nature and impact of party contacting in elections?’, Party Politics, 22(2), pp. 165–178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068815605304.

Alexandre-Collier, A. (2020) ‘From Rebellion to Extinction: Where have all the Tory Remainer MPs Gone?’, Political Quarterly, 91(1), pp. 24–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12824.

Allen, N. and Bara, J. (2016) ‘“Public Foreplay” or Programmes for Government? The Content of the 2015 Party Manifestos’, Parliamentary Affairs, (May 2016), https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsw020.

Allen, N., Bara, J. and Bartle, J. (2017) ‘Finding a niche? Challenger parties and issue emphasis in the 2015 televised leaders’ debates’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 19(4), pp. 807–823. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117715014.

Allen, N., Birch, S. and Sarmiento-Mirwaldt, K. (2018) ‘Honesty above all else? Expectations and perceptions of political conduct in three established democracies’, Comparative European Politics. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 16(3), pp. 511–534. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41295-016-0084-4.

Allsop, B. and Kisby, B. (2019) ‘The “Youthquake” in British Politics: Myth or Reality?’, Societies, 9(4), p. 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9040068.

Anderson, C. D. and Mcgregor, R. M. (2016) ‘Explaining stability and change of territorial identities’, Nations and Nationalism, 22(1), pp. 84–102. https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12152.

Ansell, B. and Adler, D. (2019) ‘Brexit and the politics of housing in Britain’, Political Quarterly, 90(S2), pp. 105–116. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12621.

Antonucci, L. et al. (2017) ‘The malaise of the squeezed middle: Challenging the narrative of the “left behind” Brexiter’, Competition & Change. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529417704135.

Arnorsson, A. and Zoega, G. (2018) ‘On the causes of Brexit’, European Journal of Political Economy, 55(November 2016), pp. 301–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2018.02.001.

Arzheimer, K. and Schoen, H. (2016) ‘Political interest furthers partisanship in England, Scotland, and Wales’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 26(3), pp. 373–389. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2016.1179315.

Bale, T. (2018) ‘Who leads and who follows? The symbiotic relationship between UKIP and the Conservatives – and populism and Euroscepticism’, Politics, 38(3), pp. 263–277. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263395718754718.

Bale, T. and Webb, P. (2015) ‘The Conservatives: Their Sweetest Victory?’, Parliamentary Affairs, 68, pp. 41–53. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv026.

Banducci, S. et al. (2017) ‘Model selection in observational media effects research: a systematic review and validation of effects’, Political Science. Routledge, 69(3), pp. 227–246. https://doi.org/10.1080/00323187.2017.1411766.

Bankert, A., Huddy, L. and Rosema, M. (2017) ‘Measuring Partisanship as a Social Identity in Multi-Party Systems’, Political Behavior. Springer US, 39(1), pp. 103–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-016-9349-5.

Barclay, A. (2020) ‘When Religious Voting Becomes Volatile: The Case of Jewish Voters in Britain’, Politics and Religion, 13(3), pp. 544–574. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755048320000188.

Barclay, A., Sobolewska, M. and Ford, R. (2019) ‘Political realignment of British Jews: Testing competing explanations’, Electoral Studies. Pergamon, 61, p. 102063. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ELECTSTUD.2019.102063.

Barker, F. and McMillan, K. (2017) ‘Factors influencing the electoral participation of Asian immigrants in New Zealand’, Political Science. Routledge, 69(2), pp. 139–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/00323187.2017.1348236.

Barkovic-Parsons, C., Hodgson, R. and Maloney, J. (2017) ‘Are marginals different? Evidence from British elections 1950–2015’, Public Choice. Springer US, 171(3–4), pp. 303–321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-017-0438-8.

Barnes, L. and Hicks, T. (2018) ‘Making Austerity Popular: The Media and Mass Attitudes toward Fiscal Policy’, American Journal of Political Science, 62(2), pp. 340–354. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12346.

Becker, S., Fetzer, T. and Novy, D. (2017) ‘Who voted for Brexit? A comprehensive district-level analysis’, Economic Policy, (October 2017), pp. 601–650.

Bell, T. and Gardiner, L. (2019) ‘My Generation, Baby: The Politics of Age in Brexit Britain’, The Political Quarterly. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111), 90(S2), pp. 128–141. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12623.

Bertelli, A. M. and Sinclair, J. A. (2015) ‘Mass Administrative Reorganization, Media Attention, and the Paradox of Information’, Public Administration Review, 75(6), pp. 855–866. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12396.

Berz, J. (2020) ‘The effect of voters’ economic perception, Brexit and campaigns on the evaluation of party leaders over time’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 22(2), pp. 202–219. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148119886220.

Bhatti, Y., Fieldhouse, E. and Hansen, K. M. (2018) It’s a Group Thing: How Voters go to the Polls Together, Political Behavior. Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-018-9484-2.

Bimber, B. et al. (2015) ‘Digital Media and Political Participation: The Moderating Role of Political Interest Across Acts and Over Time’, Social Science Computer Review, 33(1), pp. 21–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439314526559.

Birch, S. and Lodge, G. (2015) ‘Voter Engagement , Electoral Inequality and First-Time Compulsory Voting’, The Political Quarterly, 86(3), pp. 385–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12178.

Bisgaard, M. (2015) ‘Bias Will Find a Way: Economic Perceptions, Attributions of Blame, and Partisan-Motivated Reasoning during Crisis’, The Journal of Politics, 77(3), pp. 849–860. https://doi.org/10.1086/681591.

Bittner, A. (2014) ‘Leader Evaluations and Partisan Stereotypes – A Comparative Analysis’, in Costa Lobo, M. and Curtice, J. (eds) Personality Politics?: The Role of Leader Evaluations in Democratic Elections, pp. 17–38.

Blais, A. and Daoust, J.-F. (no date) The motivation to vote: explaining electoral participation.

Blais, A. and Degan, A. (2018) ‘L’étude empirique du vote stratégique’, L’Actualité économique, 93(1–2), p. 47. https://doi.org/10.7202/1044715ar.

Blanchflower, D. G. and Oswald, A. (2017) ‘Do Humans Suffer a Psychological Low in Midlife? Two Approaches (With and Without Controls) in Seven Data Sets’, NBER Working Paper Series, p. 24. https://doi.org/10.3386/w23724.

Bloom, N. et al. (2015) ‘The Impact of Competition on Management Quality: Evidence from Public Hospitals’, Review of Economic Studies, 82, pp. 457–489.

Bode, L. (2017) ‘Gateway Political Behaviors: The Frequency and Consequences of Low-Cost Political Engagement on Social Media’, Social Media and Society, 3(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305117743349.

Bol, D., Blais, A. and Laslier, J. F. (2018) ‘A mixed-utility theory of vote choice regret’, Public Choice. Springer US, 176(3–4), pp. 461–478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-018-0571-z.

Breton, C. et al. (2017) ‘Telephone versus Online Survey Modes for Election Studies: Comparing Canadian Public Opinion and Vote Choice in the 2015 Federal Election’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 50(4), pp. 1005–1036. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008423917000610.

Burnap, P. et al. (2016) ‘140 characters to victory?: Using Twitter to predict the UK 2015 General Election’, Electoral Studies. Pergamon, 41, pp. 230–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ELECTSTUD.2015.11.017.

Campbell, R. and Childs, S. (2015) ‘“To the left, to the right”’, Party Politics, 21(4), pp. 626–637. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068813491536.

Campbell, R. and Childs, S. (2015) ‘All Aboard the Pink Battle Bus? Women Voters, Women’s Issues, Candidates and Party Leaders’, Parliamentary Affairs, 68, pp. 206–223. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv036.

Campbell, R. and Heath, O. (2017) ‘Do women vote for women candidates? attitudes toward descriptive representation and voting behavior in the 2010 british election’, Politics and Gender, 13(2), pp. 209–231. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X16000672.

Carl, N. (2018) ‘IQ and political attitudes across British regions and local authorities’, Intelligence. Elsevier, 69(March), pp. 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2018.06.002.

Carl, N. (2017) ‘Ethnicity and electoral fraud in Britain’, Electoral Studies. Elsevier Ltd, 50, pp. 128–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.09.011.

Carnes, N. and Lupu, N. (2016) ‘Do Voters Dislike Working-Class Candidates? Voter Biases and the Descriptive Underrepresentation of the Working Class’, American Political Science Review. Cambridge University Press, 110(04), pp. 832–844. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055416000551.

Carreras, M. (2019) ‘“What do we have to lose?”: Local economic decline, prospect theory, and support for Brexit’, Electoral Studies. 62(June). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2019.102094.

Carreras, M., Irepoglu Carreras, Y. and Bowler, S. (2019) ‘Long-Term Economic Distress, Cultural Backlash, and Support for Brexit’, Comparative Political Studies, 52(9), pp. 1396–1424. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414019830714.

Carvalho, H. and Chamberlen, A. (2018) ‘Why punishment pleases: Punitive feelings in a world of hostile solidarity’, Punishment and Society, 20(2), pp. 217–234. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474517699814.

Chamberlen, A. and Carvalho, H. (2018) ‘The Thrill of the Chase: Punishment, Hostility and the Prison Crisis’, Social and Legal Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/0964663918759820.

Chrisp, J. and Pearce, N. (2019) ‘Grey Power: Towards a Political Economy of Older Voters in the UK’, Political Quarterly, 90(4), pp. 743–756. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12737.

Chzhen, K., Evans, G. and Pickup, M. (2014) ‘When do Economic Perceptions Matter for Party Approval?: Examining the Endogeneity of Economic Perceptions Before and During the Economic Downturn’, Political Behavior, 36(2), pp. 291–313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-013-9236-2.

Clarke, H. D., Goodwin, M. and Whiteley, P. (2017) ‘Why Britain voted for Brexit: An individual-level analysis of the 2016 referendum vote’, Parliamentary Affairs, 70(3), pp. 439–464. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx005.

Clarke, H. et al. (2016) ‘Modelling the dynamics of support for a right-wing populist party: the case of UKIP’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. Taylor & Francis, 7289(April), pp. 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2016.1146286.

Claus, E. and Nguyen, V. H. (2018) ‘Consumptor economicus: How do consumers form expectations on economic variables?’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Elsevier B.V., 152, pp. 254–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2018.04.016.

Clements, B. (2018) ‘Attitudes towards faith-based schooling amongst Roman Catholics in Britain’, British Journal of Religious Education. Routledge, 40(1), pp. 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2015.1128393.

Clements, B. (2017) ‘Weekly churchgoing amongst Roman Catholics in Britain: long-term trends and contemporary analysis’, Journal of Beliefs & Values. Routledge, 38(1), pp. 32–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/13617672.2016.1237422.

Clements, B. and Field, C. D. (2014) ‘The polls-trends: Public opinion toward homosexuality and gay rights in Great Britain’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 78(2), pp. 523–547. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfu018.

Clements, B. and Spencer, N. (2014) ‘Public Opinion in Britain towards the Disestablishment of the Church of England’, Journal of Anglican Studies, pp. 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1740355313000399.

Colantone, I. and Stanig, P. (2018) ‘Global Competition and Brexit’, American Political Science Review, pp. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055417000685.

Collignon, S. and Sajuria, J. (2018) ‘Local means local, does it? Regional identification and preferences for local candidates’, Electoral Studies, 56(January), pp. 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.07.003.

Cutts, D., Goodwin, M. and Milazzo, C. (2017) ‘Defeat of the People’s Army? The 2015 British general election and the UK Independence Party (UKIP)’, Electoral Studies. Elsevier Ltd, 48, pp. 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.03.002.

Cutts, D. and Johnston, R. (2015) ‘Constituency campaigning intensity and its impact at first and second-order elections: Wales, 2010 and 2011’, Electoral Studies, 39, pp. 85–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2015.04.001.

Cutts, D. and Russell, A. (2018) ‘The Liberal Democrats: Green Shoots of Recovery or Still on Life Support?’, Parliamentary Affairs, 71(2017), pp. 72–90. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx063.

Dassonneville, R. (2016) ‘Volatile Voters, Short-Term Choices? An Analysis of the Vote Choice Determinants of Stable and Volatile Voters in Great Britain’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties. Taylor & Francis, 7289(March). https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2016.1158181.

Dassonneville, R. and Hooghe, M. (2017) ‘The Noise of the Vote Recall Question : The Validity of the Vote Recall Question in Panel Studies in’, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 29(2).

Däubler, T. (2015) ‘What the UK general elections of 2005/10 tell us about the demand for manifestos (and the other way round)’, Parliamentary Affairs, 68(2), pp. 401–422. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsu022.

Davidson, S. et al. (2017) ‘Rating the debates: The 2010 UK party leaders’ debates and political communication in the deliberative system’, British Politics, 12(2), pp. 183–208. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41293-016-0021-9.

De Burca, G. (2018) ‘Is EU Supranational Governance a Challenge to Liberal Constitutionalism?’, Ssrn, (Routledge 1992), pp. 337–368. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3105238.

De Vries, C. E., Hobolt, S. B. and Tilley, J. (2018) ‘Facing up to the facts: What causes economic perceptions?’, Electoral Studies. Elsevier Ltd, 51, pp. 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2017.09.006.

Dellmuth, L. M. and Tallberg, J. (2018) ‘Why national and international legitimacy beliefs are linked: Social trust as an antecedent factor’, The Review of International Organizations. The Review of International Organizations. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11558-018-9339-y.

Demireva, N. and Heath, A. (2017) ‘Minority Embeddedness and Economic Integration: Is Diversity or Homogeneity Associated with Better Employment Outcomes?’, Social Inclusion, 5(1), p. 20. https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v5i1.825.

Demireva, N. and Heath, A. (2014) ‘Diversity and the Civic Spirit in British Neighbourhoods: An Investigation with MCDS and EMBES 2010 Data’, Sociology, 48(4), pp. 643–662. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038513516695.

Denham, J. (2020) ‘Mind the Values Gap’, Political Quarterly, 91(3), pp. 664–669. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12900.

Denham, J. and Devine, D. (2018) ‘England, Englishness and the Labour Party’, Political Quarterly, 89(4), pp. 621–630. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12566.

Dennison, J. (2017) ‘The Rise of the Greens in British Politics’, in The Greens in British Politics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42673-0_1.

Dennison, J. (2018) ‘The Rug Pulled from Under Them: UKIP and the Greens’, Parliamentary Affairs, 71(suppl_1), pp. 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsx064.

Dennison, J. (2016) The Greens in British Politics: Protest, Anti-Austerity and the Divided Left. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42673-0.

Dennison, J. and Goodwin, M. (2015) ‘Immigration, Issue Ownership and the Rise of UKIP’, Parliamentary Affairs, pp. 168–187. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv034.

Denver, D. (2010) ‘The results: How Britain voted’, Parliamentary Affairs, 63(4), pp. 588–606. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsq017.

Denver, D. (2017) ‘Book Review: Philip Cowley and Dennis Kavanagh, The British General Election of 2015’, Political Studies Review, 15(1), pp. 140–140. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478929916668282.

Dommett, K. and Pearce, W. (2019) ‘What do we know about public attitudes towards experts? Reviewing survey data in the United Kingdom and European Union’, Public Understanding of Science, 28(6), pp. 669–678. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963662519852038.

Donovan, T. and Redlawsk, D. (2018) ‘Donald Trump and right-wing populists in comparative perspective’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. Taylor & Francis, 28(2), pp. 190–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2018.1441844.

Eder, C. and Jedinger, A. (2019) ‘FAIR national election studies: How well are we doing?’, European Political Science. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 18(4), pp. 651–668. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41304-018-0194-3.

Eggers, A. C. and Spirling, A. (2017) ‘Incumbency Effects and the Strength of Party Preferences: Evidence from Multiparty Elections in the United Kingdom’, The Journal of Politics, 79(3), pp. 903–920. https://doi.org/10.1086/690617.

Eggers, A. C. and Vivyan, N. (2020) ‘Who Votes More Strategically?’, American Political Science Review, 114(2), pp. 470–485. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055419000820.

English, P. (2019) ‘Visibly restricted: public opinion and the representation of immigrant origin communities across Great Britain’, Ethnic and Racial Studies. Taylor & Francis, 42(9), pp. 1437–1455. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1485961.

Evans, G. and Mellon, J. (2018) ‘Immigration, Euroscepticism and the Rise and Fall of UKIP’, Party Politics, 25, pp. 76–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818816969.

Evans, G. and Mellon, J. (2016) ‘Working class votes and conservative losses: Solving the UKIP puzzle’, Parliamentary Affairs, 69(2), pp. 464–479. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv005.

Evans, G. and Mellon, J. (2015) ‘The political popularity contest’, Significance, 12(2), pp. 8–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-9713.2015.00809.x.

Evans, J. et al. (2017) ‘Candidate localness and voter choice in the 2015 General Election in England’, Political Geography. Pergamon, 59, pp. 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.POLGEO.2017.02.009.

Fagerholm, A. (2016) ‘Ethnic and Regionalist Parties in Western Europe: A Party Family?’, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 16(2), pp. 304–339. https://doi.org/10.1111/sena.12191.

Farrel, D. (2017) ‘Political Science in Turbulent Times’, Political Insight, (April), pp. 7–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041905817702729.

Fatke, M. (2019) ‘The personality of populists: How the Big Five traits relate to populist attitudes’, Personality and Individual Differences. Elsevier, 139(October 2018), pp. 138–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.018.

Fenner, T. et al. (2017) ‘A multiplicative process for generating a beta-like survival function with application to the UK 2016 EU referendum results’, International Journal of Modern Physics C. World Scientific Publishing Company , 28(11), p. 1750132. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0129183117501327.

Fernandez-Vazquez, P. (2018) ‘The Credibility of Party Policy Rhetoric Survey Experimental Evidence’, The Journal of Politics, 81. https://doi.org/10.1086/699915.

Fieldhouse, E. (2018) ‘Being a voter: developing a survey instrument for expressive voting’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. Routledge, pp. 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2018.1530679.

Fieldhouse, E. and Cutts, D. (2020) ‘Do as I Say or Do as I Do ? How Social Relationships Shape the Impact of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms of Voting’, British Journal of Political Science, pp. 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123420000058.

Fieldhouse, E. and Cutts, D. (2018) ‘Shared Partisanship, Household Norms and Turnout: Testing a Relational Theory of Electoral Participation’, British Journal of Political Science, 48(3), pp. 807–823. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123416000089.

Fieldhouse, E., Fisher, J. and Cutts, D. (2019) ‘Popularity equilibrium: Testing a general theory of local campaign effectiveness’, Party Politics. SAGE: London, England, p. 135406881882344. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818823443.

Fieldhouse, E. et al. (2019) Electoral Shocks: The volatile voter in a turbulent world.

Fieldhouse, E. and Prosser, C. (2018) ‘The limits of partisan loyalty: How the Scottish independence referendum cost Labour’, Electoral Studies. Elsevier, 52(December 2017), pp. 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.01.002.

Fielding, D. (2018) ‘The co-evolution of education and tolerance: Evidence from England’, Social Forces, 96(4), pp. 1825–1850. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soy008.

Fielding, D. (2018) ‘Traditions of Tolerance: The Long-Run Persistence of Regional Variation in Attitudes towards English Immigrants’, British Journal of Political Science, 48(1), pp. 167–188. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123415000575.

Fisher, S. D. and Renwick, A. (2018) ‘The UK’s referendum on EU membership of June 2016: how expectations of Brexit’s impact affected the outcome’, Acta Politica. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 53(4), pp. 590–611. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41269-018-0111-3.

Ford, R. and Goodwin, M. (2017) ‘Britain After Brexit: A Nation Divided’, Journal of Democracy, 28(1), pp. 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2017.0002.

Fornero, E. L. S. A. and Lo Prete, A. (2018) ‘Voting in the aftermath of a pension reform: The role of financial literacy’, Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, 18(May 2017), pp. 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1474747218000185.

Fournier, P. (2016) ‘Ambivalence and Attitudes Change in Vote Choice: Do Campaign Switchers Experience Internal Conflict?’, in Craig, S. C. and Martinez, M. D. (eds) Ambivalence, Politics and Public Policy.

Fox, S. (2015) ‘Scandals, war and the Millennials: Why the Iraq War and the expenses scandal are not to blame for the low turnout of the young’, British Politics, 10(4), pp. 493–513. https://doi.org/10.1057/bp.2015.11.

Freeder, S., Lenz, G. S. and Turney, S. (2018) ‘The Importance of Knowing “What Goes with What”: Reinterpreting the Evidence on Policy Attitude Stability’, The Journal of Politics, 81(1), pp. 000–000. https://doi.org/10.1086/700005.

Galandini, S. and Fieldhouse, E. (2019) ‘Discussants that mobilise : Ethnicity , political discussion networks and voter turnout in Britain’, Electoral Studies. Elsevier, 57(December 2018), pp. 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2018.12.003.

Gallego, M. and Schofield, N. (2016) ‘Do Parties Converge to the Electoral Mean in All Political Systems?’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 28(2), pp. 288–330. https://doi.org/10.1177/0951629815586878.

Garzia, D. and De Angelis, A. (2016) ‘Partisanship, leader evaluations and the vote’, Comparative European Politics, 14(5), pp. 602–625.

Gingrich, J. (2017) ‘A New Progressive Coalition? The European Left in a Time of Change’, The Political Quarterly, 88(1), pp. 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12332.

Gomez, R. (2018) ‘“People are running, but where are they heading?” Disentangling the sources of electoral volatility’, Comparative European Politics. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 16(2), pp. 171–197. https://doi.org/10.1057/cep.2015.22.

Goodwin, M. and Milazzo, C. (2017) ‘Taking back control? Investigating the role of immigration in the 2016 vote for Brexit’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 19(3), pp. 450–464. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117710799.

Green, J., Hellwig, T. and Fieldhouse, E. (2018) The Economic Basis of Support for Brexit: A Group-Based Relative Economic Vote.

Green, J. and Prosser, C. (2016) ‘Party system fragmentation and single-party government: the British general election of 2015’, West European Politics. Routledge, 39(6), pp. 1299–1310. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2016.1173335.

Greene, Z. and McMillan, F. (2020) ‘“Party competition and dual accountability in multi-level systems” the independence echo: the rise of the constitutional question in Scottish election manifestos and voter behaviour’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. Taylor & Francis, 30(3), pp. 317–338. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2020.1727486.

Grynberg, C., Walter, S. and Wasserfallen, F. (2020) ‘Expectations, vote choice and opinion stability since the 2016 Brexit referendum’, European Union Politics, 21(2), pp. 255–275. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465116519892328.

Gunn, A. (2017) ‘Embedding quantitative methods by stealth in political science: Developing a pedagogy for psephology’, Teaching Public Administration, 35(3), pp. 301–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0144739417708838.

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